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土弓铺筋的技艺,角弓通用,亚当的,,,, [复制链接]

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发表于 2016-12-19 09:20:54 |显示全部楼层
Laying sinew 铺筋
The glue for sinewing must have certaincharacteristics. Above all, it must be capable of gelling within no more than 4hours from the time of use. This may vary depending on the type of glue, itscomposition, the concentration and on the temperature in the shop.
粘筋的胶要具备以下特征。首先必须在使用4小时内凝结。根据胶的种类,成分,浓度和室温会有所变动。
Fish bladder gluesgel slower (require lower temperature and more time for gelling). If thetemperature in the room is higher, such glues may not gel within the requiredtime. On the other hand, commercial hide glue gels the fastest. These glues aredifficult to use at a low ambient temperature, since the process of layingsinew takes at least 3-5 minutes per bundle.
鱼鳔胶凝结缓慢,需要更低温度和更多时间去凝结。如果室温偏高,这种胶将无法在规定时间内凝结。另外,商业兽皮胶凝结是最快的。这种胶在很低的环境温度下是很难使用的,因为每束筋丝需要铺3-5分钟。
The shop madetendon glue has intermediate properties. It is important to test how theintended glue mix behaves at the required concentration of 20-25%. If the mixgels too fast, the addition of bladder glue is called for, if too slow, somehide glue or gelatine needs to be added. It is also possible to move the bow toa colder room once sinewed, to allow the glue to gel there.
商店产的筋胶具有中间特性。对浓度在20-25%的胶水混合物进行测试是很重要的。如果混合物凝结太快,需要加鱼鳔胶,如果太慢,需要加兽皮胶或明胶。想凝结快点,也可以把弓移到更冷的房间进行铺筋。

The excess of fishglue (palate glue) was needed for sinew in flight bows, otherwise the flightdistances would not be as great. It is possible the better wetting of sinewfibers by this slower gelling glue was desired for greater durability in heatconditioned bows, and the glue retained its toughness despite the lowermoisture content after the treatment.
飞弓的筋里需要加入大量的鱼嘴唇胶,不然射的不远。靠胶缓慢的凝结能够让筋得到更好渗透,这样能让炎热地区的弓具备更好的耐久性,并且能让胶在很低的含水量时也保持坚韧。
The glue must gelbefore sinew begins to visibly dry, which is around 2-4hours depending on theambient humidity. The gelled, solid glue holds sinew in its proper place on thebow, not allowing it to shift or pull-off from the core as it dries.
胶必须在筋开始明显干燥前凝结,大约2-4小时,这取决于环境湿度。凝结的固态的胶才能把筋固定在弓上,才能防止筋在干燥后从胎上卷起或拉开。
With no gelling,the limbs would require wrapping with something like a bandage or rubber bands.Such devices can either impact an undesirable texture to the dried sinew orprevent the drying altogether.
凝结还没结束,弓臂就需要用类似绷带的东西缠绕起来以防止筋干后出现裂纹或过分干燥。
The Turkishbowyers never did that, on the contrary, bows were hung close to the groundafter sinewing- obviously to take advantage of the cooler air to make the gluegel. In the Korean method the glue saturated sinew bundles are put asidewrapped in wet cloth to cool off and gel, before applying to bows. The Chinesedid the sinewing in the winter. According to Taybogha bows were sinewed inearly spring, again to take advantage of cold air in the otherwise hot climate.The method by Klopsteg of laying sinew in a Turkish bath may have merit,provided the bow is transferred to a cold room to make the glue gel after the operationis finished. I need not mention the layer of sinew should be allowed to dry ina temperature well below 35 degrees, otherwise the glue would liquefy, againendangering the integrity of the sinew layer.
土耳其弓匠不这么做,相反,他们铺筋后把弓挂在接近地面的地方利用冷空气凝结。在韩国,铺筋后用湿布包裹进行冷却和凝结。中国人在冬季铺筋。Taybogha弓在早春铺筋,并靠热气候里的冷气流凝结。Klopsteg在土耳其浴室里铺筋,再移入冷房间凝结。我要提醒大家,铺筋最好在35摄氏度以下进行,不然胶会液化并危及筋束。

To make glue, thesame amount of dry weight as sinew is mixed with water for 20-25%concentration. In the dried sinew layer the glue content rangers from 30-35%. Toomuch glue is not desirable, because it adds dead weight. Too little glue, onthe other hand, weakens the bonding with wood and lowers the cohesion of thelayer, resulting in air pockets within it.
打胶时,要和水混合后占20-25%的含量。干燥的筋层里,胶含量是30-35%。胶多了增加自重。胶少了降低和胎的粘接力还在筋层里产生气泡。
I sometimes use abit more concentrated glue for the first layers and then less concentrated forthe last one. In most old bows the sinew layer had the texture very much likesinew in the mew bows. In one unfinished bow however, still tied in its pretzelshape, sinew did not even show the fibrous structure, possibly due to either avery high amount of glue, or the aging process, where sinew fused with glueover a long period of time.
我通常给第一层筋用浓胶,之后的筋层用稀胶。很多老弓的筋层纹理和新弓的一样。在一个未完工的老弓里,筋丝仍旧呈现出卷曲的外形,筋甚至看不出它的纤维结构,可能是因为胶含量高,或年代久远,筋已经和胶融合了很久很久了。

It is s goodpractice to measure the thickness of limbs at sal now and mark it on the belly.This way the total thickness after the sinewing can be assessed for the desiredtotal.
测量出弓臂厚度并在弓腹标记出来是一个实用的办法。这样就能够估算出铺筋后想要的总厚度了。
Now we are readyto start. First all loose bits of wood are removed from the grooved core with aknife or a fine sandpaper. The core, together with the edges plus a fewmillimeters of the horn belly, are then coated with glue to saturate wood andeliminate the chance of voids to form under the sinew.
现在我们开始铺筋。首先用小刀或砂纸清除胎上木屑。给弓胎连同边缘外的几毫米都涂上胶水,让木材充分渗透饱和并清除一切能在筋层下形成空隙的机会。
I lot glue at aconcentration of 10% is used, applied several times, with drying in between,until the scored surface of wood is glossy. It is helpful to lightly sand thesurface between the coats, as this makes it smoother for better adhesion. Thelaying of sinew is then best done within a day to avoid contamination.
我把胶水浓度调到10%,刷一次,干一次,反复几次直到木材表面光滑。在每次刷胶前最好轻轻打磨表面,因为越平滑越容易粘胶。最好在一天内铺完筋,这样可防止污染。
I made a jig tohold the bow securely for sinewing. The glue at 20-25% is kept ready in warmwater or over a temperature regulated hot element to keep it warm. Thetemperature of glue should be around 50 degree. Wet sinew does not toleratetemperatures above 60 degree, which makes it shrivel into short, rubberystrands.
我做了一个夹具好给弓铺筋。温水里的胶浓度在20-25%,用一个调温器保持温度。胶要保持在50度左右。湿的筋要保持在60度以内,不然就缩短涨团了。
1. Soaking the bundles directly in glue for afew minutes, removing and squeezing the excess of glue, then combing tountangle the strands on a flat board.
1. 把筋束直接放进胶水里泡几分钟,挤掉多余胶水在平板上舒展铺平。
2. Soaking the bundles first in warm water for10-30min, squeezing as much water as possible, soaking briefly in glue,squeezing lightly to remove the excess and combing on a board.
2把筋束在温水里泡10-30分钟,挤掉多余水分,在泡入胶水里一小会儿,轻轻挤掉多余胶水舒展铺在平板上。
3. Soaking in warm water for 10-30min, combingwith fingers or a comb under running water, squeezing hard, soaking briefly inglue and squeezing lightly as above.
4. 把筋束在温水里泡10-30分钟,在流动的水里用手指或梳子梳理,用力挤掉水后泡入胶水一小会儿再轻轻挤掉多余胶水舒展铺在平板上。
Fach method isgood. Soaking in glue can be done in a trough, about as long as the sinewbundles, where sinew can be fully immersed with enough room for somemanipulation. Or one half of bundle is dipped first in a glue pot and swishedaround to saturate, then the other half.
以上每种方法都很好。把筋束泡在一个和它一样长的水槽里更方便操作和浸泡。或者先泡一半筋束在胶水里摆一摆,浸透后再换另一半泡。
Once done, thebundle is lightly squeezed from the excess of glue. Whichever method is used,the end result is a flattened, slippery bundle, fully saturated with glue withno sir between the strands, ready to be put on the bow. I usually start at thegrip.
一旦开始做,筋束要轻轻挤掉多余的胶水。无论用那种方法,最后的结果都应该是平展的,顺滑的筋束,充分浸泡渗透胶水且筋丝间没有气泡。这样就可以铺了。我是从把手开始铺筋。

The bundles areplaced slowly down, making sure to keep the strands straight, since it isdifficult to correct the position of bundle once on the bow. It is sometimesnecessary to use a comb to straighten the ends.
筋束被慢慢放置,必须保持顺直,因为一旦铺到弓上就很难校正了。有时候要用梳子理顺尾端。
The sinew is thenpressed lightly down with fingers, including the tapered ends to flatten, tospread out the bundle and to remove air bubbles trapped under the bundle. Thepressure should be light, since too much pressure may starve sinew of glue andcause voids.
筋束要用手指轻轻施压,包括锥形的尾端也要铺平,挤走气泡。压力要轻,太重的压力会挤走胶水形成空隙。
When laying twoparallel bundles, it is important to do it rather quickly, so the first bundlewould not gel before the second is pressed in. it is because both should bemerged into one unbroken and perfectly even strap.
当铺两条上下平行的筋束时,动作要相当快,要在第一条筋束凝结前铺上第二条。因为两条筋束要合并为一条完整的平板条带。
Bundles laidend-to-end require the overlap of 1.5in,since both have the natural end taper,acquired during preparation. The edges and about 5mm of the belly are coveredby placing a bundle to extend a bit to the side, pressing down and wrapping theloose edge of sinew around onto the belly. If there is not enough sinew at theedges, in can be added later at any time.
两条筋束接头的地方要重叠1.5英寸(3.8厘米)。弓腹边缘的筋束要多出来5毫米,包裹在弓腹边缘上。如果筋不够,以后铺也行。

One limb is donefrom the grip to the tip, then the other one. By that time the sinew will mostlikely be gelled. The bow is now left to cool to allow the glue to gelcompletely. If the humidity in the room is low, it is better to keep the bowupside down (sinew down) to slow the drying.
用梳子从把手向梢子梳理,然后再梳理另一边。同时胶水会凝结。此时弓要在冷的地方让胶快速凝固。如果湿度低,可以把弓倒挂,让筋层朝下延缓干燥。

Once the gelledglue becomes firm, but not yet dry, the bow’s tips are pulled together for morereflex by about 4-6 in more in case of two layered sinew, but less when morelayers are expected. At the end of sinewing, after all layers are done, thetips should be no more than 4 in apart. The tips are tied or clamped in the newposition. The felexing is done to put the sinew layer under compression and topress the sinew into the core, thus preventing possible delamination when thesinew layer contracts. It so effective that I have never seen sinew pulling offeven in the most reflexed bows.
一旦胶水凝固却还没干燥时,要把弓稍两端拉近到相距 4-6英寸(10-15厘米)的反曲形态,这是铺两层筋的距离,如果铺了更多层筋,梢子的距离还要缩短。
当全部筋层都铺上去后,两梢子距离应在4英寸(10厘米)以内。两个梢子要绑在固定位置。反曲能给筋层一个向胎挤压的压力。这可以防止筋层在收缩时起层分裂。这方法很有效,我至今没见过筋层开裂,即使在最反曲的弓上也如此。
Obviously, it hasto be done before drying when the gelled layer is still soft. After thereflexing the bow is left for at a week to make sure the drying is complete. Usually,when the tips are again untied the bow will maintain the same added reflex.
显然,这些要在胶干燥前,筋层还软的时候做完。反曲后的弓要放置一周以彻底干燥。当梢子被解开后,弓依然保持反曲。

Another method ofsinew laying should be mentioned. It is possible to put aside the glue-soaked,combed and flattened bundles for the glue to gel. The result is a long leatherystrip of sinew which can be put on the core, which is well sized with gluepreviously and dried as above.
另一种铺筋方法也要提一下。可以把胶水放一边,把筋束在胶水里浸泡,再放在平板上梳理铺平后等胶凝结。结果形成一条类似皮带的筋层,尺寸在上胶时就测量好了。
The bow ismoistened with hot glue or water first, then the gelled strip is placed downand pressed. This method, used by Korean bowyers, lends itself well to anassembly-line type work on many bows at a time.
弓先用热胶或水浸透,再把凝结后的筋层铺上压紧。这是韩国人用的方法,适合在流水线上给好几把弓同时铺筋。

The methoddescribed in Kani goes as follows. The sinew is divided into 5 bundles(presumably for one layer). First, a bundle is rubbed in a combination of fish(palate)and tendon glue by a helper to become like leather. It is then placed on thegrip with the sinew reaching to the arrow pass.
Kani所说的方法如下。先把一层的筋分成5束。一束筋上擦鱼唇胶和筋胶的混合物,使筋变得像皮革。再从把手出箭点开始铺。
A special tool ina form of a hook at one and a comb at another end (called sinew pen) is used tocomb and untangle the fibers for the parallel alignment. The tool is kept inwater when not in use. The next bundle overlaps the first and reaches up to theKasan eye, then another one to the end of kasan.
一种类似钩子的特殊工具(称作铺筋笔)用在筋的一头,梳子用在另一头去解开缠绕的筋丝使纤维平行。工具不用时放在水里。下一条筋束和第一条重叠一直铺到Kasan eye的位置,然后另一条铺到Kasan的尽头。
The bowyer may usehis teeth to soften the bundle before placing on the bow. The round section ofsinir kalemi is used to press the sinew into the concave sides of Kasan. Thenthe other side is done in exactly the same way and the bow hanged, low to theground, to avoid cracking of sinew.
铺筋前弓匠用牙齿软化筋束。Sinir kalemi圆满的一面用来把筋压入Kasan有凹槽的一面。另一边用同样的方法。弓被挂在距离地面很低的地方防止筋开裂。
The word crackingmust mean delamination in this case- the cold air and humidity close to theground will prevent this problem, as the drying is slowed down and the glue isallowed to gel. After drying, thin, hot glue is poured over the bow a few timesto saturate the sinew, until it becomes glossy, which can be helped by rubbingwith a wet sponge to make it smooth. The next layer is put on later, as before.
开裂这个词在这里意思是起层---冷空气和接近地面的潮湿空气能让干燥缓慢进行并逐渐凝结,从而防止这种问题发生。

The leatheryconsistency of sinew/glue combination may suggest the sinew bundles wereallowed to gel after saturation with glue before placing on the bow. Also theneed to chew the bundles to make then pliable enough to conform to the curvedparts suggests the bundles were indeed somewhat hardened. In can mean, the Turkishmethod of sinewing could be similar to Korean.
筋胶结合物类似皮革般坚韧的一致性表明,筋束在上胶后可以先凝结再铺到弓上。这需要揉搓筋束使其足够柔韧去适应弧面弓胎。这表明土耳其的铺筋方法和韩国人的类似。
On the other hand,the use of sinir kalemi would be impossible, if the strands were stuck togetheras in the gelled, hardened bundle. The method of preparing the flat bundlebeforehand would be the most efficient in a large workshop and obviously thebundles would indeed harden to a varying degree before use.
另外,如果筋丝在凝结的坚硬的筋束里缠在一起,sinir kalemi将会无法使用。提前预制平整的筋束在大作坊里会是最有效率的,并且筋束会在铺设前变得非常坚硬。
I believe the maindifference of the Korean method is in adding the glue to a wet bundle of sinewon a wooden board where the bundle was then combed into a flat strip. In the Turkishmethod the dry bundle was dipped whole in glue and then made even and flat touse. The sinew in old Turkish bows I saw was completely saturated with gluewith the fibers nearly impossible to detect.
韩国方法的特点是:把湿润筋束铺在平木板上梳理平整再刷胶水。而土耳其做法特点是:干燥的筋束整个泡在胶水里,捞出再放平板上梳理平整。在老旧的土耳其弓里,筋的纤维几乎吸收了全部胶水以至于弓上看不到胶水。
On the other hand,the sinew in Korean bows was not so well encased in glue, which was mainlypresent on the inner surface in contact with the wood of the core. The methodsof using the prepared, gelled bundles may offer a margin of safety againstdelamination of sinew when it contracts during drying. Because the outer(back)side of the sinew strip goes into compression as it conforms to the reflexedcore. The compressed back fibers of sinew do not contract as much when thelayer dries preventing delamination from the core. The effect is similar to therelaxing of the freshly sinewed bow as I described above.
另外,韩国弓的筋并没有被胶水很好的包住,主要是在弓胎表面上粘着。使用预制凝结好的筋束铺弓主要是为了防止铺筋后干燥时起层。因为筋层的外表面在弓胎形成反曲时会收缩。用干后的筋层铺设弓胎就不会收缩太厉害,也就能防止起层了。效果和我上述的刚铺筋的弓的反曲类似。

After drying thebow is lightly filed to even-out the sinew, followed by sandpaper (#100 grit issufficient). It is not necessary to make sinew perfectly flat at this point,but ridges and crossed fibers should be filed down. In a humid climate wherethe dry sinew is somewhat softer, it may be possible to compress the layer witha round, smooth dowel instead.
干燥后的弓可以用100号砂纸打磨筋层。此时没必要打磨太平整,只要把突起物和交错的纤维打磨掉就可以了。在潮湿环境里筋有点软,可以用光滑的圆棒把筋层碾压平整。
As before, allhandling is done with cotton gloves. Then the bow is dusted and a coat of hot10% glue is applied generously to saturate the surface. The bow is now ready forthe next layer of sinew. The bundles are now put on, making sure the overlappedjoints do not fall exactly over the joints in the first layer.
以前,所有操作都是戴棉手套完成。这时要把弓搓一搓再刷一层10%浓度的胶水渗透下表面。这时候就可以铺第二层筋了。第二层筋束的搭接点和第一层的搭接点要错开位置。
I have always doneit this way to prevent any chance of creating a weak section in the finallayer. Such precaution may not be necessary, however, if the bundles aresufficiently overlapped and the layer is even. It is important not to wait toolong with the next layer, because the exposed surface of sinew tends to degradewith time. Once the first layer is dry, in maximum 2 weeks, the next layer islaid on. Again, the bow is progressively reflexed each time, once the gluegels. After the final layer is finished, the bow is left to dry and season.
我一直这么做以防止最后会出现薄弱地方。如果筋束搭接的充分,筋层均匀则不必那么过于担心了。在铺下层筋前没必要等太久,因为筋暴露久了会退化。第一层筋铺后最多等2周就该铺第二层了。每次凝结后弓会继续加大反曲。当最后一层筋铺完就等待干燥和调整了。


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