请选择 进入手机版 | 继续访问电脑版


热搜: 活动 交友 discuz
查看: 1980|回复: 0

土弓铺筋的技艺,角弓通用,亚当的,,,, [复制链接]

Rank: 7Rank: 7Rank: 7

发表于 2016-12-19 09:20:54 |显示全部楼层
Laying sinew 铺筋
The glue for sinewing must have certaincharacteristics. Above all, it must be capable of gelling within no more than 4hours from the time of use. This may vary depending on the type of glue, itscomposition, the concentration and on the temperature in the shop.
Fish bladder gluesgel slower (require lower temperature and more time for gelling). If thetemperature in the room is higher, such glues may not gel within the requiredtime. On the other hand, commercial hide glue gels the fastest. These glues aredifficult to use at a low ambient temperature, since the process of layingsinew takes at least 3-5 minutes per bundle.
The shop madetendon glue has intermediate properties. It is important to test how theintended glue mix behaves at the required concentration of 20-25%. If the mixgels too fast, the addition of bladder glue is called for, if too slow, somehide glue or gelatine needs to be added. It is also possible to move the bow toa colder room once sinewed, to allow the glue to gel there.

The excess of fishglue (palate glue) was needed for sinew in flight bows, otherwise the flightdistances would not be as great. It is possible the better wetting of sinewfibers by this slower gelling glue was desired for greater durability in heatconditioned bows, and the glue retained its toughness despite the lowermoisture content after the treatment.
The glue must gelbefore sinew begins to visibly dry, which is around 2-4hours depending on theambient humidity. The gelled, solid glue holds sinew in its proper place on thebow, not allowing it to shift or pull-off from the core as it dries.
With no gelling,the limbs would require wrapping with something like a bandage or rubber bands.Such devices can either impact an undesirable texture to the dried sinew orprevent the drying altogether.
The Turkishbowyers never did that, on the contrary, bows were hung close to the groundafter sinewing- obviously to take advantage of the cooler air to make the gluegel. In the Korean method the glue saturated sinew bundles are put asidewrapped in wet cloth to cool off and gel, before applying to bows. The Chinesedid the sinewing in the winter. According to Taybogha bows were sinewed inearly spring, again to take advantage of cold air in the otherwise hot climate.The method by Klopsteg of laying sinew in a Turkish bath may have merit,provided the bow is transferred to a cold room to make the glue gel after the operationis finished. I need not mention the layer of sinew should be allowed to dry ina temperature well below 35 degrees, otherwise the glue would liquefy, againendangering the integrity of the sinew layer.

To make glue, thesame amount of dry weight as sinew is mixed with water for 20-25%concentration. In the dried sinew layer the glue content rangers from 30-35%. Toomuch glue is not desirable, because it adds dead weight. Too little glue, onthe other hand, weakens the bonding with wood and lowers the cohesion of thelayer, resulting in air pockets within it.
I sometimes use abit more concentrated glue for the first layers and then less concentrated forthe last one. In most old bows the sinew layer had the texture very much likesinew in the mew bows. In one unfinished bow however, still tied in its pretzelshape, sinew did not even show the fibrous structure, possibly due to either avery high amount of glue, or the aging process, where sinew fused with glueover a long period of time.

It is s goodpractice to measure the thickness of limbs at sal now and mark it on the belly.This way the total thickness after the sinewing can be assessed for the desiredtotal.
Now we are readyto start. First all loose bits of wood are removed from the grooved core with aknife or a fine sandpaper. The core, together with the edges plus a fewmillimeters of the horn belly, are then coated with glue to saturate wood andeliminate the chance of voids to form under the sinew.
I lot glue at aconcentration of 10% is used, applied several times, with drying in between,until the scored surface of wood is glossy. It is helpful to lightly sand thesurface between the coats, as this makes it smoother for better adhesion. Thelaying of sinew is then best done within a day to avoid contamination.
I made a jig tohold the bow securely for sinewing. The glue at 20-25% is kept ready in warmwater or over a temperature regulated hot element to keep it warm. Thetemperature of glue should be around 50 degree. Wet sinew does not toleratetemperatures above 60 degree, which makes it shrivel into short, rubberystrands.
1. Soaking the bundles directly in glue for afew minutes, removing and squeezing the excess of glue, then combing tountangle the strands on a flat board.
1. 把筋束直接放进胶水里泡几分钟,挤掉多余胶水在平板上舒展铺平。
2. Soaking the bundles first in warm water for10-30min, squeezing as much water as possible, soaking briefly in glue,squeezing lightly to remove the excess and combing on a board.
3. Soaking in warm water for 10-30min, combingwith fingers or a comb under running water, squeezing hard, soaking briefly inglue and squeezing lightly as above.
4. 把筋束在温水里泡10-30分钟,在流动的水里用手指或梳子梳理,用力挤掉水后泡入胶水一小会儿再轻轻挤掉多余胶水舒展铺在平板上。
Fach method isgood. Soaking in glue can be done in a trough, about as long as the sinewbundles, where sinew can be fully immersed with enough room for somemanipulation. Or one half of bundle is dipped first in a glue pot and swishedaround to saturate, then the other half.
Once done, thebundle is lightly squeezed from the excess of glue. Whichever method is used,the end result is a flattened, slippery bundle, fully saturated with glue withno sir between the strands, ready to be put on the bow. I usually start at thegrip.

The bundles areplaced slowly down, making sure to keep the strands straight, since it isdifficult to correct the position of bundle once on the bow. It is sometimesnecessary to use a comb to straighten the ends.
The sinew is thenpressed lightly down with fingers, including the tapered ends to flatten, tospread out the bundle and to remove air bubbles trapped under the bundle. Thepressure should be light, since too much pressure may starve sinew of glue andcause voids.
When laying twoparallel bundles, it is important to do it rather quickly, so the first bundlewould not gel before the second is pressed in. it is because both should bemerged into one unbroken and perfectly even strap.
Bundles laidend-to-end require the overlap of 1.5in,since both have the natural end taper,acquired during preparation. The edges and about 5mm of the belly are coveredby placing a bundle to extend a bit to the side, pressing down and wrapping theloose edge of sinew around onto the belly. If there is not enough sinew at theedges, in can be added later at any time.

One limb is donefrom the grip to the tip, then the other one. By that time the sinew will mostlikely be gelled. The bow is now left to cool to allow the glue to gelcompletely. If the humidity in the room is low, it is better to keep the bowupside down (sinew down) to slow the drying.

Once the gelledglue becomes firm, but not yet dry, the bow’s tips are pulled together for morereflex by about 4-6 in more in case of two layered sinew, but less when morelayers are expected. At the end of sinewing, after all layers are done, thetips should be no more than 4 in apart. The tips are tied or clamped in the newposition. The felexing is done to put the sinew layer under compression and topress the sinew into the core, thus preventing possible delamination when thesinew layer contracts. It so effective that I have never seen sinew pulling offeven in the most reflexed bows.
一旦胶水凝固却还没干燥时,要把弓稍两端拉近到相距 4-6英寸(10-15厘米)的反曲形态,这是铺两层筋的距离,如果铺了更多层筋,梢子的距离还要缩短。
Obviously, it hasto be done before drying when the gelled layer is still soft. After thereflexing the bow is left for at a week to make sure the drying is complete. Usually,when the tips are again untied the bow will maintain the same added reflex.

Another method ofsinew laying should be mentioned. It is possible to put aside the glue-soaked,combed and flattened bundles for the glue to gel. The result is a long leatherystrip of sinew which can be put on the core, which is well sized with gluepreviously and dried as above.
The bow ismoistened with hot glue or water first, then the gelled strip is placed downand pressed. This method, used by Korean bowyers, lends itself well to anassembly-line type work on many bows at a time.

The methoddescribed in Kani goes as follows. The sinew is divided into 5 bundles(presumably for one layer). First, a bundle is rubbed in a combination of fish(palate)and tendon glue by a helper to become like leather. It is then placed on thegrip with the sinew reaching to the arrow pass.
A special tool ina form of a hook at one and a comb at another end (called sinew pen) is used tocomb and untangle the fibers for the parallel alignment. The tool is kept inwater when not in use. The next bundle overlaps the first and reaches up to theKasan eye, then another one to the end of kasan.
一种类似钩子的特殊工具(称作铺筋笔)用在筋的一头,梳子用在另一头去解开缠绕的筋丝使纤维平行。工具不用时放在水里。下一条筋束和第一条重叠一直铺到Kasan eye的位置,然后另一条铺到Kasan的尽头。
The bowyer may usehis teeth to soften the bundle before placing on the bow. The round section ofsinir kalemi is used to press the sinew into the concave sides of Kasan. Thenthe other side is done in exactly the same way and the bow hanged, low to theground, to avoid cracking of sinew.
铺筋前弓匠用牙齿软化筋束。Sinir kalemi圆满的一面用来把筋压入Kasan有凹槽的一面。另一边用同样的方法。弓被挂在距离地面很低的地方防止筋开裂。
The word crackingmust mean delamination in this case- the cold air and humidity close to theground will prevent this problem, as the drying is slowed down and the glue isallowed to gel. After drying, thin, hot glue is poured over the bow a few timesto saturate the sinew, until it becomes glossy, which can be helped by rubbingwith a wet sponge to make it smooth. The next layer is put on later, as before.

The leatheryconsistency of sinew/glue combination may suggest the sinew bundles wereallowed to gel after saturation with glue before placing on the bow. Also theneed to chew the bundles to make then pliable enough to conform to the curvedparts suggests the bundles were indeed somewhat hardened. In can mean, the Turkishmethod of sinewing could be similar to Korean.
On the other hand,the use of sinir kalemi would be impossible, if the strands were stuck togetheras in the gelled, hardened bundle. The method of preparing the flat bundlebeforehand would be the most efficient in a large workshop and obviously thebundles would indeed harden to a varying degree before use.
另外,如果筋丝在凝结的坚硬的筋束里缠在一起,sinir kalemi将会无法使用。提前预制平整的筋束在大作坊里会是最有效率的,并且筋束会在铺设前变得非常坚硬。
I believe the maindifference of the Korean method is in adding the glue to a wet bundle of sinewon a wooden board where the bundle was then combed into a flat strip. In the Turkishmethod the dry bundle was dipped whole in glue and then made even and flat touse. The sinew in old Turkish bows I saw was completely saturated with gluewith the fibers nearly impossible to detect.
On the other hand,the sinew in Korean bows was not so well encased in glue, which was mainlypresent on the inner surface in contact with the wood of the core. The methodsof using the prepared, gelled bundles may offer a margin of safety againstdelamination of sinew when it contracts during drying. Because the outer(back)side of the sinew strip goes into compression as it conforms to the reflexedcore. The compressed back fibers of sinew do not contract as much when thelayer dries preventing delamination from the core. The effect is similar to therelaxing of the freshly sinewed bow as I described above.

After drying thebow is lightly filed to even-out the sinew, followed by sandpaper (#100 grit issufficient). It is not necessary to make sinew perfectly flat at this point,but ridges and crossed fibers should be filed down. In a humid climate wherethe dry sinew is somewhat softer, it may be possible to compress the layer witha round, smooth dowel instead.
As before, allhandling is done with cotton gloves. Then the bow is dusted and a coat of hot10% glue is applied generously to saturate the surface. The bow is now ready forthe next layer of sinew. The bundles are now put on, making sure the overlappedjoints do not fall exactly over the joints in the first layer.
I have always doneit this way to prevent any chance of creating a weak section in the finallayer. Such precaution may not be necessary, however, if the bundles aresufficiently overlapped and the layer is even. It is important not to wait toolong with the next layer, because the exposed surface of sinew tends to degradewith time. Once the first layer is dry, in maximum 2 weeks, the next layer islaid on. Again, the bow is progressively reflexed each time, once the gluegels. After the final layer is finished, the bow is left to dry and season.

使用道具 举报

您需要登录后才可以回帖 登录 | 立即注册

Archiver|手机版|中国传统弓箭论坛 ( 闽ICP备12002809号 )

GMT+8, 2021-1-28 03:33 , Processed in 0.219279 second(s), 9 queries .

Powered by Discuz! X2

© 2001-2011 Comsenz Inc.